Neither Arizona nor Federal law requires an employer to give a lunch break or any other types of breaks. I've included a link to a Department of Labor web page where you can get more information for your sister.
Did your new employer fire you because of your ex-employer's phone call or did you quit? There is more information that you need to provide, but yes, I do believe you have a case based in part on your ex-employer's interference with your new employment. The bigger question, in my mind, is what the amount of your damages is and whether that amount would be enough to make it worth your while to bring a lawsuit.
I recommend you find an attorney who will provide you with a free consultation...
Arizona does not have an overtime law. However, if your wife's employer is covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act, the federal overtime laws apply. Here is a link to the US Department of Labor's Wage and Hour Division. You can find many helpful answers there, including the phone number for the Arizona office of the Wage and Hour Division. I recommend you call the Arizona office and see if your wife has an legal recourse against her employer.
If you are the creditor (in contrast to an entity being the creditor), then you should file a separate proof of claim for the amount that you are personally owed. Your business partner can do the same. If the debtor owes money to the entity, rather than you personally, then the entity should file a proof of claim for the entire amount that is owed.
You certainly can object to the dischargeability of the debt if you believe he obtained your money by fraud, but you will bear the...
Business directory scams are fairly prevalent and the facts as you have described (the phone call, the recording) are common.
Oftentimes, letting the company know that you've reported them to the Federal Trade Commission (www.ftc.gov) and/or the Better Business Bureau will get them to drop the matter. If they refuse to stop collections after you've told them that you have reported them, hire a lawyer to send a letter threatening legal action.
Good question, and you seem to have an excellent grasp on the law already. My thought is this: the one issue you didn't mention, and which is important, is whether you took the check for "value." If not, the holder in due course defense does not apply.
I'd suggest that you contact the State Bar of Arizona to find a lawyer near you who will discuss your issue, whether or not you have a case, and if it worth pursuing if you do have a case. The State Bar website (www.azbar.org) has a "Find A Lawyer" feature.
If your employment was "at will" then you do not have any type of case based on your termination being wrongful.
However, if you think you were terminated because of your age, you can file a complaint with the EEOC and they will investigate. While that is a possibility (age discrimination), from the facts you presented it seems more than likely that you were terminated because of a positive drug test and that is certainly a valid reason to terminate someone's employment.
If you can end the problem by deleting the posts I see no reason why you should not do that. In my opinion their actions do not rise to the level of conduct that a judge would order to be restrained. In addition, a restraining order will just prolong the drama. You have the power to stop it but taking the simple step of deleting posts and you'll save yourself a lot of time and money by doing that.