Florida law requires that the holder of a will must record the will in the public records of the county. Additionally, before assets can be distributed, an estate must be opened, an inventory conducted, and notice provided to all beneficiaries and creditors. You can visit the clerk's office at the county courthouse to obtain this information.
You could possibly have a whistleblower claim if your complaint was based on health, safety, or welfare of the community. Are you sure the City said you were fired specifically for talking about the golf course, and not some other work related reason? I would need to know more specifics about the situation to know for certain if your complaint qualifies for whistleblower protection.
The short answer is yes, unless you have an employment contract that says otherwise. However, the employer cannot unfairly cut pay for these violations based on race, gender, disability, etc. In other words, if pay is cut for women who violate the policy, then you have cut pay for men who do the same thing.
You are likely an at-will employee, which means your employer has the ability to terminate your employment for any reason. The exceptions would be discrimination. If you are a member of a protected category (race, gender, disability, etc.), and the others who were not fired are not of that category, you could have case. You need to consult an employment attorney.
Yes, but only if the statements were not true. Slander cases are tough because often there is some element of truth in the statement. Additionally, unless you have suffered significant damages, it's not worth bringing a case
You could sue the doctor if the infections were the result of negligence, and if the negligence caused the infections. Infections can be a common side effect of many procedures. Your case would depend on whether the doctor did anything wrong to cause the infection. If he/she did not, then you would not have case. Additionally, infections are often short lived, and because of this, your damages may not be sufficient enough to justify the expense of a lawsuit.
Bottom line, you need to...
It's not fair, but it is legal. The employer does not have to show you items placed in your file, although if there is a slanderous statement in your file, and it is shared with third persons, you could have a defamation claim assuming you can prove damages.
Generally, in this situation, you should return the money because it did not rightfully belong to you. In some states, such as Florida, you could be sued for civil theft or conversion, because you have converted property (money) to your own use, when you don't have the right to possess the property.
You don't have to hire a lawyer, but it will almost certainly improve your chances of recovering lost wages and potentially medical expenses for your injury. Most states allow recovery of lost wages in personal injury suits, so a MN. lawyer should be able to advise you in that regard. It's very difficult for a lay person to navigate the legal system, so a lawyer could be helpful. Try to find a lawyer who will take your case on a contingency fee basis.