This is probably a bit more complicated that we can answer here, but I'll try to give a little intro information.
We don't really speak in terms of the company being qualified - there are no absolute rules. However, it must be obvious that the job offer is a real one - that there is a real company doing business in the field it says it is, that income/capitalization is sufficient to meet the prevailing wage requirement and still continue on in that business (paying any other employees and...
There is no waiting period - you can file right away.
The question is whether it'll do much good - spouses and minor children of green card holders are family 2A category, which means that in order to get a green card while here they need to have maintained status from entry (there are some rare exceptions). There will be something of a wait in their cases no matter what.
Speak with an attorney for further guidance on what this involves/the best way to go about this.
There is no way you can file for him individually at this point - the marriage creating the relationship would need to have happened before you turned 18.
Your mother's petition for him may actually take much longer than two years - speak with an attorney.
Many complexities here, and many things that you will need to speak with a qualified attorney in order to determine. I'll stick to your numbering system, for clarity's sake:
1a. Yes, your employer can begin the green card process for you because the L category allows dual intent - the intent to be here temporarily on a nonimmigrant visa while eventually intending to get permanent residence and remain permanently. Length of time it will take depends upon method used to file, and this...
Not necessarily - just means that they have your case, but don't know when they'll get to it.
Visa number must have at least been available when the case was filed, or an I-485 won't be accepted for filing. Availability can and sometimes does "retrogress" - goes backward where visas are no longer available after filing. the case won't be denied - it would be kept pending - but couldn't be approved until visa numbers are again available in the category filed.
A visa isn't normally...
Tough situation, and you need to speak with an attorney.
First, you can't apply for a fiance visa for him when you are a permanent resident (only a citizen can apply). also, the process for a spouse of a permanent resident is very long.
On the other hand, being illegally in France doesn't impact his legal status in the U.S.
Question is, can YOU get U.S. citizenship? May make the most sense for you to apply to naturalize as a citizen, and then apply for a fiance visa or green card for...
There is no prohibition on passive investment - just owning an equity interest in a company.
But, some potential issues here: what is your role as an officer? You couldn't do any active work for a US company for which you don't have an appropriate visa (you say that your current TN employer and the company in which you are investing are different entities).
There IS a prohibition on self-employment while on TN - so even getting a TN for the new company wouldn't work if it's viewed as a...
Talk to a lawyer about your case before doing anything - in part to clarify your question. I agree that if you are here in valid F-1 visa status, you can in most cases legally apply for the lottery (if this is what you were asking) - but there may in some instances be risks and/or consequences to doing this concerning travel and in some cases there might be issues concerning the timing of your most recent entry. If you were asking if you can use the lottery to apply for an F-1, then you can't....
If we're talking about a PERM labor certification case, then the attorney is correct - the DOL prohibits the foreign national beneficiary from paying for any part of the PERM case: legal fees or advertising. The employer could be in enormous trouble for accepting reimbursement from you for anything it pays for a PERM. A PERM requires a job offer - the employer must be the petitioner.
There are other ways to petition for permanent residence based upon employment which don't involve a PERM...
I completely agree with my colleague - it's possible in theory, since not only are you out of status but the SEVIS system is set up to notify ICA (Immigration and Customs Enforcement) when you fall out of status.
That said, absent a criminal issue (and especially if a reinstatement shows as being filed), they aren't likely to expend the manpower in most cases. Possible, just unlikely.
Speak with an attorney for further guidance.