The I-130 interview will be only focused on the good faith nature of the marriage. The other issues - the entry with a fraudulent passport, the old removal case - those all go to whether or not he can adjust his status.
If the prior removal was not related to a criminal matter, it is unlikely that ICE would pick him up at the I-130 interview. However, your attorney is going to have far more information and will be able to give you a much better idea of what to expect with the I-130 interview.
Typically affidavits of friends and family are given relatively little weight, and are usually used in cases where there is reason to suspect marriage fraud. Other evidence of the good faith nature of the marriage is going to be more important.
You will need to obtain a certified court docket. You may also really want to consider having an attorney review your filing prior to filing for adjustment. You should have your criminal record and immigration history available prior to a consultation.
You will want to set a consultation to review both the risks and potential benefits of applying, and the likely chance of success versus the potential outcome in the event of a denial. You will want to obtain a copy of the court record before setting a consulation.
No, there is no deadline to apply for citizenship. It is often a good idea to file as soon as you are eligible to do so, but it is not required. Some people opt to remain greencard holders for decades.
You will both be happiest if you assume it may take anywhere from 5 - 10 months. There can and often are various delays during the process. If he has not already done so, hiring an immigration attorney will be a very good idea.
An investment in property alone would not be sufficient. An investment or creation of a business that would create ten jobs can lead to an investment based greencard. You may have other options to explore as alternatives to employment based greencards, depending upon your work history and funds available for investment.
The whole of your experience will be looked at in determining whether your skill set satisfies the position requirements, and whether the position requirements meet the standards for an H-1b as a specialty occupation. If over all your experience satisfies the requirements, that some of that experience was acquired at a community college should not be a significant issue. A professional evaluation of your educational and professional background may be the best approach when applying for a new...
I am not clear if you have the approval notice and want a full copy of the filing, or if you need to have the filing for consular processing, or if there is another situation. If an attorney was used, you can typically see the attorney name on the approval notice and can contact the attorney office for a copy.