The answer depends on what type of association you live in, when it was created, and what its governing documents say. An attorney that is familiar with community associations can assist in determining whether a vote is required to impose a special assessment.
It is important to determine at the outset whether a violation of the governing documents occurred. If a section in the declaration gives owners the unfettered right to lease their units, then the answer in this situation may be "no" absent a rental restriction amendment. The association should make sure that it is confident in its interpretation of the governing documents before beginning an enforcement action. An excellent way to do so is by consulting with an attorney.
The original lien covers the subsequent assessments if it contains language to that effect. If the lien does not say that it covers subsequent assessments, then a new lien should be recorded. An attorney who practices in this area can help the association record proper liens and collect delinquent assessments.
Condominium boards have the authority to regulate common areas, and they can permit gardens within those areas. In the absence of complaints from other owners, boards can view gardens as enhancements of common areas. A written notice indicating that the board has decided to conditionally permit use of the association's property for a garden is advisable to preserve the association's ownership interest.
If the CC&Rs do not specify how bylaws may be adopted and the developer did not adopt bylaws, then a majority of a quorum of the association can vote to adopt a set of bylaws at a meeting. The link to the state law describing HOA bylaws is http://apps.leg.wa.gov/RCW/default.aspx?cite=64.38.030. Your Association should consider consulting with an attorney that has experience representing homeowners associations. Such an attorney can likely provide you with a sample set of bylaws.
It is possible to enforce view-protection covenants on real property through litigation. This typically only involves obtaining an order to trim or remove the offending trees. Awards of monetary damages other than attorney fees are uncommon in these types of cases. Fines may be another available enforcement tool. Your association should consider consulting an attorney such as myself who focuses on representing community associations if the violation persists.
The bank owns the unit after foreclosure and has the power to vote that accompanies such ownership. You may be able to amend your documents even if the bank will not vote if your documents permit amendments to be approved by owner "consent".
Your association's governing documents will determine the answer to this question. Loss of voting rights is one potential consequence of delinquency, but it should only be implemented if it is explicitly provided for in the governing documents.
If your association has been having problems collecting delinquent assessments, then it should consider establishing a relationship with an attorney to help it address that issue in accordance with applicable laws and its governing documents.