You can get a total of 5 years in R-1 status, so if you have been out of the U.S. you should be able to extend beyond April 2013 (by the same amount of time that you have been outside the U.S. since April 2008). Also, if you have been out of the U.S. for a period of one year, you can get a new R-1 visa, with a new 5-year clock.
It is true that you must have had a continuous year of physical presence in the U.S., but you must have already fulfilled that requirement to get the first N-470.
It is not true that you have to file the N-470 before you leave the U.S. You can file the N-470 after leaving the U.S. and even after you have started the employment abroad, but it has to be filed within one year of departure from the U.S.
You can therefore file the second N-470 without returning to the U.S. if you have been...
Since you mention a "send button", I am assuming that the green card process was a labor certification. If so, the recruitment you conducted has all expired, and you will need to start the entire case from the beginning.
It depends on the change of status approval notice. If the change date has not yet arrived, you can take steps to prevent the change from occuring.
However, if you are already in J-1 status, you may not be able to change back to F-1 (and OPT). I have never heard of this situation (in over 30 years of handling such cases!). That is something your attorney should research; perhaps a persuasive argument for changing back can be made.
To be eligible to adjust your status, you must have entered the U.S. legally (that is, you must have been "inspected and admitted", usually with a lawful visa).
You are right to be concerned, because adjustment of status applications could result in deportation because of past crimes. I agree with my colleagues that you need to have an immigration attorney review all of your criminal records, order an FBI rap sheet, and analyze your situation, and you definitely should not proceed without...
Her ban should not affect his L-1 visa application. Also, they should consult with an immigration attorney to explore the possibility of getting an L-2 visa, despite the ban. Spouses with L-2 visas are eligible to work in the U.S.
I disagree with my colleague who believes that work as an employee rather than as an independent contractor is normally required for an L-1 visa. Actually, it is settled law that it is never required. Work as an independent contractor is sufficient if it has all of the attributes of employment (for example, it is full-time, there is only one company you work for, and that company controls and directs your work).
I agree with Mr. Dobson. The current I-9 Handbook that you quote (the 2011 edition) is changed from the 2009 edition, which mentioned the requirement of a receipt. The AC21 law itself only refers to filing the petition (and not receiving a receipt), and the USCIS has never issued a regulation to clarify the requirement. When the law was first passed over a decade ago, the USCIS (called the "INS" at the time) did issue informal guidance that suggested that the FedEx or other delivery...