Do you know if the bus that slammed your hand was a city/government bus? If so, you had 6 months from the date if loss to file a claim. This requirement can be stretched but ONLY for good cause.
I suggest you immediately contact a local personal injury attorney to look through all of the documents to see if you have a cause of action. In the meantime, get all the medical help that you need.
In these types of cases an attorney should take the case on a contingency basis, meaning you won't have to pay out of pocket. Unfortunately, it is standard for insurance carriers to play these types of games. Make sure you get an attorney that is willing to take the case to trial.
If your case as been resolved, it cannot be re-litigated, absent an order from the Appellate court for the case or issue to be remanded to the trial court. You get one "bite at the apple." In short, No, unless it is a completely different claim and set of facts you could not have brought forth the first time around.
You can absolutely get reimbursed for car repairs from his insurance company. You can go to a trusted body shop and provided them the contact information for the insurance carrier. Most body shops will deal directly with the insurance.
I'm sorry, but the statute of limitations in California is 2 years. Although you were only 14 at the time, you turned 18 over 27 years ago.
The purpose of this is to make sure the evidence is fresh, the injuries for which one is seeking recover are connected to the accident, and to allow the courts to not get tied up with aged disputes.
normally a Mal-Practice attorney will require an initial deposit to cover a medical record review by an expert. If your case has merit, you will recover this amount at the end of the case. There are numerous AVVO mal-practice attorneys in your area. Check out the website.
It hasn't gone through because the court is not accepting it. Discovery requests are only served on the parties to the case (all of them irrespective of who is answering). They are not filed with the court.