I don't know if they would tell a "girlfriend" (or boyfriend) but their should be person at the detention facility that would have that information (release date or bond information).
A lawyer could find out.
I assume you are referring to the 2 year foreign residency requirement that some J-1 exchange visitors are subject to. It is CIS policy to deny the adjustment of status application if it is filed prior to either:
1. satisfying the requirement by being physically present in your home country for 2 years
2. obtaining a waiver of the requirement (I-612 approval).
Basically you are inadmissible - just like someone who came illegally to the U.S. or has a serious criminal record....
I assume you are referring to the visa stamp in your passport - not the petition which sets the period of your L-1 stay in the U.S. A visa cannot be issued or reissued in the U.S. (Once upon a time it was possible through the State Department in DC).
So your best bet, if you're eligible is to apply for the visa at a nearby American Consulate in Mexico (Tijuana) or Canada (try Ottawa if Toronto and Vancouver are too booked up). Each post has its own rules about 3rd county nationals, so...
The question is confusing since I-751 and VAWA petitions are different critters that only relate to each other in the sense that they involve green cards and domestic relationships. However, it should not make a difference who is the petitioner as long as the marriage was bona fide.
Yes you can - and if you can afford it - you should.
The H-1B petition should filed a.s.a.p.
Given the filing fees involved in the H-1 petition you should see a qualified immigration lawyer immediately. I'm sure you would go see a doctor if your well being for the next 6 years depended on it.