Yes, assuming you can document that she qualified back in the 1990's. So the problem might be getting that documentation - especially if you are not currently living in the U.S. That's why you need a "good immigration lawyer".
Certified Immigration Law Specialist*
Law Offices of Tasoff and Tasoff
16255 Ventura Blvd. Suite 1000
Encino, California 91436
It is always good advice to keep all legal documents in a safe place for as long as possible. You never know if you might have to use them to prove something sometime in the future. BTW, to satisfy the 2 year residency requirement the former J-1 exhange visitor must have resided for at least 2 years in his/her home country OR obtain a waiver (which is not that easy to get). You will need to prove that at your adjustment of status interview.
I don't know if they would tell a "girlfriend" (or boyfriend) but their should be person at the detention facility that would have that information (release date or bond information).
A lawyer could find out.
I assume you are referring to the 2 year foreign residency requirement that some J-1 exchange visitors are subject to. It is CIS policy to deny the adjustment of status application if it is filed prior to either:
1. satisfying the requirement by being physically present in your home country for 2 years
2. obtaining a waiver of the requirement (I-612 approval).
Basically you are inadmissible - just like someone who came illegally to the U.S. or has a serious criminal record....
I assume you are referring to the visa stamp in your passport - not the petition which sets the period of your L-1 stay in the U.S. A visa cannot be issued or reissued in the U.S. (Once upon a time it was possible through the State Department in DC).
So your best bet, if you're eligible is to apply for the visa at a nearby American Consulate in Mexico (Tijuana) or Canada (try Ottawa if Toronto and Vancouver are too booked up). Each post has its own rules about 3rd county nationals, so...
The question is confusing since I-751 and VAWA petitions are different critters that only relate to each other in the sense that they involve green cards and domestic relationships. However, it should not make a difference who is the petitioner as long as the marriage was bona fide.