As other's have said, only the prosecutor -- a City Attorney or District Attorney -- can press charges. While it is impossible to say with certainty what the prosecutor may do, the fact that you were re-charged for the item would suggest to me that charges were not filed since you actually purchased the item at full retail value. Typically in theft cases Defendant's do not return the items. In your case, not only did you return the item, but you paid full value for it.
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You should be aware that whenever you have warrant, on a misdemeanor or felony, there is always the chance that you can get stopped at customs for questioning on the warrant and potentially detained. I have had clients detained for seemingly minor warrants on cases for petty theft and similarly minor convictions. I strongly advise that you clear the warrant prior to travel.
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This conviction could certainly effect your status. First, in any immigration proceeding, it is always critical to contact an immigration lawyer in addition to criminal counsel. Criminal counsel cannot answer all immigration questions, and it can in fact be malpractice for a criminal defense attorney to give complex immigration advice. With that being said, your conviction may be deemed a crime of moral turpitude, and it could affect your status. A crime of moral turpitude is essentially...