No. The judge "talked to you like a punk" and then you "abandoned your daughter at the courthouse on purpose"? You might ask yourself, why does the judge talk to me like I'm a punk? You never get a second chance to make a first impression, which is what is happening here - as opposed to "gender bias."
This is a BIG question and you should probably see a lawyer. Yes, you should plead any possible affirmative defenses in your answer, but you don't need to cite to case law. What defenses you should plead really depends on the type of case and what defenses are available to you.
Depending on the value of the car, you may want to consider proceeding in small claims court. I'm not sure what you mean by "insurance settlement." If you mean the settlement from your own carrier, you can still seek damages from the driver. If you already took a settlement from the driver's carrier, you have likely signed away your right to get more.
You might be able to sue for nuisance, but it is unlikely the damages awarded for one month of inconvenient noise would be enough to cover the attorney fees. Not to mention that you would have a difficult case, since 8am to 6pm is standard working hours for construction.