Richard is right - contact each type of attorney. You may have a claim for duress for the prenup issue. Also, you may still be eligible for status in the US, despite your husband filing for divorce. The key is getting proper legal advice that is specific to your issues. Good luck.
Typically there needs to be more than just a petition to enroll, meaning that there should be a motion for something filed with it or on its way. I recommend that you speak to an attorney about the specifics of your case.
Adult adoptions are quick and easy in Illinois, but you need a lawyer to do the paperwork correctly. It is so wonderful for you to do this later in life and I know it is that little touch that makes your family "official", even though you know that already.
Depending on how far into the case yes. If you are 12 months into the case, the Court may still give you time to hire an attorney, but may not move trial dates or so forth. However, Courts appreciate having attorneys involved who know the rules, so the Court may, in the interest of eventually moving the case along, grant the continuance.
Your wife cannot dictate the amount of payment. The Court can order you to search for full-time employment, but they can consider your status. The State's Attorneys can be bulllies, but the Court is the boss, not them.
Always talk to you attorney first and see if you can resolve the dispute. You absolutely have a right to reimbursed for expenses, but if you testified under oath and failed to catch the error prior to testifying, you might find yourself in a position of paying large sums of money to correct an error of $477.00.
The statute provides for the Court to consider awarding fees in certain situations. Simply if you earned more than him, the Court could award interim fees to him, but this is not as easy since the statute changed. If you are unsuccessful in your seeking custody modification and the Court believed you had an improper purpose in seeking to modify custody, it could award fees to your ex. Legal fees are a tricky area and are very fact-based.
The minor should absolutely have an attorney when dealing with DCFS. Any records of contact, etc. of a sexual nature are placed in a database searchable by law enforcement and child welfare agencies. No crime does not mean no problems.
The safety of your children is always paramount. Contact an attorney to discuss the facts needed to modify your custody judgment, because these a fact-intensive issues. You may also have other remedies available to you under the law that you should investigate in a consultation with an attorney.
You should not need the Court's permission, but your move is definitely going to impact the visitation. Whether you have joint or sole custody matters slightly too, because most joint custody agreements include a mediation clause. The best advice is to speak to your ex, but have an attorney consultation with an Illinois attorney to prepare for the worst - a potential disagreement from your ex. This advice is general advice and not specific to your case.