Unfortunately you have no further rights arising out of the automobile accident. First the statute of limitations is 3 years from the date of the accident; secondly it appears you entered a binding settlement. Sorry.
There are not enough facts for a valid opinion on your potential success. I assume your case in already in litigation and your attorney has accomplished discovery of all the facts. Your current attorney is the only one who could assist you in answering your question. I wish you the very best in this matter.
IF you are in the state of Michigan, both the owner and the driver may be held liable for injuries. There is little you can do at this point other than hoping the victim was not seriously injured. Check to see if your girl friend owned an "insured vehicle" even though not involved in the accident.
The comment: "transfer the case to the court". If you were not driving, then the ticket should not have been issued to you. You should plead "not guilty" and ask that the matter be scheduled for a pretrial conference. You will be able to speak to a prosecutor at that time and explain that you were not driving.
From your comments assume there was an accident resulting in damage to the vehicle. Secondly, I assume that there is no collision coverage on the vehicle. Unfortunately, neither the insurance agent nor the finance company are responsible. I am afraid you (she)have no recourse. Sorry.
The client has control of their case ultimately. However one should review the retainer agreement to determine the possible ramifications. More often than not, one should not disregard the recommendations of their counsel.
As co-signor on the loan, you continue to be responsible to the lending institution. I'm surprised that this loan could be procured "without" proof of insurance. You might check the loan documents to determine if there is an insurance payment through the lender.
Check with a bankruptcy attorney on the second question.