Your ex will have to list you as a creditor in his bankruptcy, but he will not be able to discharge the child support obligation. You have the right to attend his meeting of creditors, but you are not required to do so. I don't think filing an objection to exemptions will gain anything for you. If he has claimed exemptions to which he is not entitled, his trustee will object to them. Your bigger problem is collecting the $10,000.00. I recommend you consult with your divorce lawyer to see what...
If your fiance(e) is already here and you have married each other, You should file Form I-485, Form I-765, Form I-131, Form G-325A, Form I-864, and all of the supporting documentation required by the instructions for these forms, but you will do yourselves a favor by hiring an immigration lawyer to help you through the process. See the link below to AILA for additional help in finding an immigration lawyer near you.
The fact that the woman was undocumented does not make the marriage illegal. Neither does tha fact that she purchased a fake social security card. There could be other reasons that the marriage would not be valid, such as she may still be married to a prior husband.
The chapter 7 discharge did not get rid of any divorce decree obligations that were imposed subsequent to October 17, 2005. Meet with your divorce lawyer to make a plan about how to enforce the divorce decree.
No, you can't send it directly to the USCIS (successor to the INS), but you could put it in a sealed envelope to go in the submission going to the USCIS, watch it being placed in the submission mailing and personally deliver the submission mailing to the post office or express mailing service.
Just because you received notice of a discharge order being issued in your ex's bankruptcy case, that does not mean that his divorce decree obligations to you have been discharged. Take what you received to the lawyer you previously talked with, and get confirmation of what I am telling you.
Once you have filed your bankruptcy petition, the only later acquired assets that can become property of the bankruptcy estate are divorce settlement proceeds, inheritance, or life insurance proceeds that come available within 6 months of your filing date, so, no, a gift made to you after the filing of your ch 7 bankruptcy petition will not be taken away from you.
You need to meet with an immigration lawyer to go over your situation in detail. See the link below. If your husband was inspected and admitted to the US, that is, if he entered the US legally, things will go much more easily for you than if he entered by crossing the border to avoid border inspection. Because your husband is 19, you should move quickly, he may not yet be subject to a three year or ten year bar to obtaining an immigrant visa.