Good afternoon. Your wife will require a sponsor unless she qualifies as an extraordinary teacher under a special category reserved for those who have risen to the top. Then she could file a petition on her own, however it is a very high standard.
This is really a difficult situation and I would recommend that you hire a lawyer who is a member of the American Immigration Lawyers' Association and perhaps contact that organization's liaison to determine whether this unfortunate situation can be rectified prior to accruing unlawful status in the U.S. It is time sensitive.
Yes, especially if you already have a bachelor's degree from your home county and you can locate a US company which because of being a non-profit, research company, or related to a university, is not subject to the H-1B cap. Otherwise, assuming again that you have a bachelor's degree, you would have to wait until 2015 when the H-1B visa availability is reopened. To work as an H-1 B professional, the employer must prove that the job is professional in nature and requires the serves of a...
Yes, it will take longer, however, if you are "illegal" in the sense that you entered the US without a visa, unfortunately you cannot file the Form I-485 unless you fall under the old law. Your options may be limited.
It all depends on the type of case - it is simply the time that USCIS takes to adjudicate your petition. There is a longer wait for Indians and Chinese after that, and you must look to the U.S. visa bulletin for that information under your category.
You will need to file a separate form I-864 filed by your friend as joint sponsor. Your friend will also need to provide proof of U.S. citizen or green card status and three years of US income tax returns including Forms W-2.
I believe that perhaps you are wondering about filing for "perm" labor certification through your current employer? If that is the case, the process will take 30 days for the job order, then at least 6 months for the "perm" labor certification, depending on your category and whether or not you have a master's degree or equivalent.