It is possible that this case could be dismissed, or reduced to Reckless Driving. The prosecution may still have other evidence on you such as any performance you may have done on field sobriety tests, whether the officer noted you had slurred, mumbled, or thick speech, glassy or bloodshot eyes, and a "strong odor of an alcoholic beverage" coupled with any driving manifestations that the officer observed. It is good that they don't have any chemical test results in your case, but that does not...
Normally, the answer would be yes it very well could prevent you from entering Canda. Since you are a Permanent Resident I do not believe it can stop you from entering. However, I would still check with an attorney who specializes in Immigration law before I made any decisions.
Was he arrested, and charged with a DUI? Hire a lawyer, and wait for the blood test results to come back. Make sure the lawyer you hire knows the difference between the active ingredient that shows up on a marijuana test, and the inactive ingredient. DUI marijuana cases are hard to prove because the prosecutor usually cannot show when the person last smoked.
You need to file a 10 Day Appeal letter within 10 business days of your arrest to stop the administrative suspension of you license. Once that request is granted it will be possible to stop the suspension of your license. You definitely have a strong case because you refused the breath test, and all field sobriety tests.
It depends. If the officer doesn't show or you sign a 1205 withdrawal you can get your license back in about a week once the paperwork catches up in the system at DDS. If you lose the hearing how long you will be suspended for depends on whether you took the state's chemical test, refused it, and whether or not you have any other DUI convictions in the past 5 years.
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No matter what you do make sure you comply by all of the other terms of your probation so they don't have another reason to revoke you. It sounds like you have been doing this so make sure you keep it up. Have your public defender let the court know you are just not able to make the payments, and have financial documents to prove this.
It is worth mentioning to your lawyer, and a defense can be crafted around it, but be forewarned it is not a magic bullet. Some experts, and by experts I mean people you would have to pay to come testify on your behalf in court, believe that the oils, and other ingredients, in chewing gum can cause a breath test to read higher than it actually is. There is a 20 minute waiting period in which the officer has to observe you to make sure you don't put anything into your mouth before blowing into...
There's really nothing you can do. You can try to negotiate with them, but you will most likely run into bureaucratic red tape. I am not aware of a waiver for indigency, or a hardship waiver for this situation.
Possibly. There are going to be several timing issues involved in this matter. You should speak with a local attorney to see what can be done to avoid jail time in the DUI case, and how to avoid a possible probation revocation.