The short answer is, possibly. Don't forge this path without a quick look by a trademark attorney. These issues are fact intensive, and not to be done via armchair. Are the goods truly different. Are you certain? That being said, Delta Airlines and Delta Faucets is a good example, but don't construe this as legal advice.
The answer is maybe. How are you using the mark? Are you certain you are the first to use the mark? Do you have a federal registration? If all of these questions are answered in your favor, then you may have a basis to send a cease and desist letter or bring a suit to stop the infringement.
No patent attorney worth their salt will risk his/her bar license for your invention. Think about it, patent attorneys are trusted with thousands of inventions that are of great value to each of their clients. Simply stated, find someone you trust.
This sounds like more of a branding issue, under the umbrella of trademark law. Talk to an IP attorney who handles a full range matters, and I think he/she will agree that this doesn't likely involve any patent issues (unless I am missing something).
You do not need a local patent attorney, although it may be more convenient. Go with someone you trust over someone local.
Costs vary by experience of counsel. You'll need to assess whether you'll be better served with a utility patent or a design patent, or both. The design patent tends to cost less, but provides a lower level of protection. You might want to talk to a couple potential attorneys before making a decision.
Likely, not. The Collegiate Licensing Company would take issue with any use of a college's trademark, mascot, and/or colors. Think about the reason why you want to use the mark; and that is the reason why it is prohibited. There are too many cases on point, in addition to questions on Avvo that cover this issue.
This is impossible to answer without a thorough analysis of the patent claims at issue when viewed in light of the product/service. Generally, a patent attorney will review the claims and specification of the patent, in addition to the file history of the patent (the communications between the applicant and USPTO) as well as the product/service at issue. This is generally a complex issue that should be discussed in confidence with IP counsel (i.e., not on a public forum).
If you are going to sue the federal government, you'll have to bring suit at the Court of Federal Claims. You should at least speak with someone experienced with handling such cases. I worked at the Court and note that there are some procedural steps that must be followed. I would likely recommend starting with a letter to the agency. Either way, discuss this with someone specialized in IP law and with experience before the Court of Federal Claims.
See 502.02(b) Briefs on Motions - "No further papers (including surreply briefs) will be considered by the Board. The filing of reply briefs is discouraged, as the Board generally
finds that reply briefs have little persuasive value and are often a mere reargument of the points made in the main brief."
This should give you an indication that even Replies are discouraged, a surreply won't be considered. Note also that 37 CFR § 2.127 (a) prohibits the filing of surreply briefs.
You'll need to start with having an attorney review the contract. That will generally govern whether you were granted all rights to the graphics. There may be other issues under copyright law that need to be addressed, but either way you'll need to talk with an attorney.