The answers above hit all key points.
In Maryland, your brother would have to make a written request with the PD's office to file a Motion to Correct an Illegal Sentence, Motion to Modify, Writ of Actual Innocence, or a Petition for Post-Conviction Relief. Upon receipt of the request, a PD would review the case and if suitable, file one of the aforementioned Motions. The State would then file a response. After the State's response, the local court may schedule a hearing to hear arguments from both sides. It's important to remember...
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Underage drinking is a serious offense that may have long-term consequences, as a result, I would highly recommend you seek legal counsel. Depending on the facts of your case, questions may be raised concerning the complaint, Miranda, and the validity of the breathalyzer. It's unlikely you'll know which arguments to make, hence your need for counsel. PROVIDED FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY. THIS DOES NOT CONSTITUTE LEGAL ADVICE, NOR IS THERE AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP.
You could make the argument, but a court will likely determine you had ample time to lower your speed (if you were driving attentively) prior to reaching the speed limit sign.
In Maryland, you'd file a suit against your nephew for the full amount at the local District Court. Having a document, signed by both parties, that attests to the loan would help greatly, however, if you don't have documentation memoralizing the loan, an argument may be made that your nephew was unjustly enriched by your loan. This line of argument is very complicated, consequently, I'd recommend you contact an attorney to determine whether this is a suitable option in your state.
In Maryland, points would not be assessed to your license once you complete the condition of probation, i.e., paying the fine. That is the benefit of probation: points are not assessed to your license. Whether the same is true in FL I am not able to answer. I would recommend you contact a FL attorney knowledgeable in traffic offenses.
This is a common question. The answer is no. Simple administrative mistakes are often deemed as irrelevant by courts. On occasion, I've observed self-represented clients make an entire defense on issues like this - the result, the Court viewed it as the client trying to "get by".