In general, you do not need to file for a replacement card before filing for Naturalization. You should consider your specific facts, including, but not limited to your need to travel or to document employment authorization, and the strength of your Naturalization case before deciding whether or not to file.
Making several assumptions, the answer to your questions is probably Yes, as long as you can prove that your marriage is bona fide, you are not subject to a 3 or 10 year bar to reentry and you have the support of a US resident or citizen with income sufficient to support a affidavit of support. As for your husband's tax issues, additional details and research are needed to give you a reliable answer.
Unfortunately, the honest answer to your question is that visitor visas are almost entirely granted or denied on discretionary grounds and therefore a later approval after a revocation of a B-1/B-2 is unlikely. What can you do? That depends on the facts of the case. Any discussion should look at all of the facts and objectives. Perhaps there is another option that does not include a B visa.
Its not too late, but your case will take lots of work and the intervention of an experienced immigration lawyer. If your I-130 has been denied, you will need to re-file it right away. You will be able to file a new Adjustment of Status only if you have not been placed in removal. Once you are in removal, you will need to adjust before the immigration court.
Once the USCIS receives the case back from the US Consulate, it will likely issue a request for evidence or notice of intent to deny. In both cases, you have an opportunity to respond to the reasons for denial. In the past the USCIS has taken up to several years to issue the request, but more recently, this has been occurring in 3-6 months form the return of the file.
The denial presumably would have to do with the failure to meet the requirements of the visa (e.g., no proof that you have...
You have several options to address this typw of issue. First, you can request a copy of your NIIS database (entry / exit) records. This is not always complete. Alternatively, you can provide alternate proof that you left on time, such as airplane tickets or othter proof your left on time. Prooving you left may only be part of the problem. Essentially the US Embassey will be looking at whether they think you will overstay or violate your status. Therefore, you could prove you left, but...
I will attempt to answer your question, but the relevant facts are not clear.
From your question, I will assume that you are either entered the US with a valid visa and/or are in a valid non-immigrant status, have no criminal record and are otherwise admissible; the sponsor can demonstrate sufficient income; there is no prior fraud or misrepresentations; you are not subject to any foreign residency requirements, you have not been removed or excluded before; etc. I will further assume that...
Your question does not provide enough facts for a complete analysis of your case. You may have several good options depending upon your facts. While the previous answer may (in the end) be the correct, you will not know this until an experienced immigration has reviewed all of your facts and considered all of you options.
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The fiancée visa requires the marriage to occur within 90 days, but the Adjustment can accur after the 90 days have passed.
Specifically, the relevant section of the law states:
214.2(k)(6)(ii) Nonimmigrant visa issued on or after November 10, 1986. Upon contracting a valid marriage to the petitioner within 90 days of his or her admission as a nonimmigrant pursuant to a valid K-1 visa issued on or after November 10, 1986, the K-1 beneficiary and his or her minor children may apply for...
In most Baltimore District office cases, you will hear back in 7-120 days (sometimes longer). Approvals are more likely to be received quickly and denials or requests for evidence tend to take longer. I think the likelihood of a denial or request for additional documents increases substantially after 60 days have passed.
If you did not use an experienced attorney, you may want to have one review your case to determine if there are significant issues.