LEGAL GUIDE
Written by attorney Brian David Lerner | Sep 6, 2010

Legitimation in the various U.S. States as determined in the Foreign Affairs Manual

Legitimation for derivation of citizenship purposes will differ with each State as well as each Country. Here is an excerpt from the Foreign Affairs Manual on their interpretation of several of the U.S. States and how they determine if legitimation has been met by the father in regards to marriage;

U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7 - Consular Affairs

I. IS A CHILD LEGITIMATED BY THE SUBSEQUENT INTERMARRIAGE OF ITS PARENTS? 1. ALABAMA - Yes, if child is recognized by natural father. Section 26-11-1 of Alabama Code. (1993) 2. ALASKA - Yes. Section 25.20.050 of Alaska Statutes (1993) 3. ARIZONA - Yes. Section 8-601 of Arizona Revised Statutes. (1992) 4. ARKANSAS - Yes. Section 28-9-209 of the Arkansas Statutes. (1992) 5. CALIFORNIA - Yes, if in addition to the marriage the father: (1) Consents to being named as the father on the child's birth certificate or (2) Is obligated to support the child under a voluntary written promise or by court order. Section 7004(a)(3) of California Civil Code. (1992) 6. COLORADO - Yes. Section 19-4-103 and 19-4-105 of Colorado Revised Statutes.(1992) 7. CONNECTICUT - Yes. Section 45a-438(b)(1) of Connecticut General Statutes. (1992) 7 FAM 1130 Page 87 of 101 U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7 - Consular Affairs 8. DELAWARE - Yes. Section 1301 of Title 13 of Delaware Code. (1988) 9. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA - Yes. Sections 16-907 and 16-908 Code of District of Columbia. (1993) 10. FLORIDA - Yes. Section 742.091 of Florida Statutes. (1992) 11. GEORGIA - Yes, if the father recognizes the child as his. Section 19-7-20 of Code of Georgia. (1993) 12. HAWAII - Yes. Sections 338-21 and 584-2 of Hawaii Revised Statutes. (1991) 13. IDAHO - Yes. Section 32-1006 of Idaho Code. (1992) 14. ILLINOIS - Yes. Chapter 40, Sections 2502 and 2505 of Illinois Revised Statutes. (1993) 15. INDIANA - Yes, if putative father marries the mother of the child and acknowledges the child to be his own. Section 29-1-2-7 of the Indiana Statutes. (1992) 16. IOWA - Yes. Section 595.18 of Code of Iowa. (1993) 17. KANSAS - Yes. Sections 38-1112 and 38-1114 of Kansas Revised Statutes. (1990) 18. KENTUCKY - Yes, if the natural parents participated in a marriage ceremony before or after the birth of the child, even though the attempted marriage is void. Section 391.105 of Kentucky Revised Statutes. (1989) 19. LOUISIANA - Yes, when the child has been formally or informally acknowledged by both parents, whether before or after the marriage. Article 198 of Louisiana Civil Code. (1992) 20. MAINE - Yes. Title 18-A Section 2-109(2)(1) of Maine Revised Statutes. (1992) 21. MARYLAND - Yes, if the father has acknowledged himself, orally or in writing, to be the father. Section 1-208 of Estates and Trusts Code of Maryland. (1993) 22. MASSACHUSETTS - Yes, if acknowledged by father or ordered by court. Chapter 190, Section 7 of Massachusetts General Laws. (1992) 7 FAM 1130 Page 88 of 101 U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7 - Consular Affairs 23. MICHIGAN - Yes. Sections 27.5111 and 25.107 of Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated. (1991) 24. MINNESOTA - Yes. Section 257.55 and 257.52 of Minnesota Statutes. (1992) 25. MISSISSIPPI - Yes. An illegitimate child is legitimated if the natural father marries the natural mother and acknowledges the child. Section 93-17-1 of Mississippi Code. (1991) 26. MISSOURI - Yes. If father acknowledges that child is his. Section 474.070 of Missouri Revised Statutes. (1992) 27. MONTANA - Yes. Section 40-6-203 of Montana Code. (1989) 28. NEBRASKA - Yes. Section 43.1409 of Revised Statutes of Nebraska. (1991) 29. NEVADA - Yes. Section 122.140 of Nevada Revised Statutes. (1992) 30. NEW HAMPSHIRE - Yes. Section 457.42 of New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated. (1989) 31. NEW JERSEY - Yes. Sections 9:17-39, 9:17-40 and 9:17-43 of Revised Statues of New Jersey (1992) 32. NEW MEXICO - Yes. Section 45-2-109 of New Mexico Statutes. (1992) 33. NEW YORK - Yes. Article 3, Section 24 of Consolidated Laws of New York. (1992) 34. NORTH CAROLINA - Yes. Section 49-12 General Statues of North Carolina. (1989) 35. NORTH DAKOTA - Yes. Section 14-09-02 of North Dakota Century Code. (1989) 36. OHIO - Yes. Section 3111.03 of Ohio Revised Code. (1992) 37. OKLAHOMA - Yes. Title 10 Section 2 of Oklahoma Statutes Annotated. (1992) 38. OREGON - Yes. Section 109.070(3) to be read in combination with Section 109.060 of Oregon Revised Statutes. (1991) 39. PENNSYLVANIA - Yes. Pa.C.S.A. 20 Sec. 2107 and 23 Pa.C.S.A. 7 FAM 1130 Page 89 of 101 U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 7 - Consular Affairs Sec. 5101 of Purdon's Pennsylvania Statutes Annotated. (1992) 40. RHODE ISLAND - Yes. Section 33-1-8 of General Laws of Rhode Island. (1992) 41. SOUTH CAROLINA - Yes. Section 20-1-60 of Code of Laws of South Carolina. (1990) 42. SOUTH DAKOTA - Yes. Section 29-1-15.1 of South Dakota Codified Laws. (1992) 43. TENNESSEE - Yes. Section 36-2-207 of Tennessee Code Annotated. (1992) 44. TEXAS - Yes. Title 2, Section 12.01 and 12.02 of Texas Code Annotated. (1992) 45. UTAH - Yes. Section 75-2-109(2)(a) of Utah Code Annotated. (1992) 46. VERMONT - Yes, if the child is recognized by the father. Title 14 Section 554 of Vermont Statutes Annotated. (1993) 47. VIRGINIA - Yes. Section 20-31.1 of Code of Virginia (1992) 48. WASHINGTON - Yes. Section 26.26.040(c) of the Revised Code of Washington. (1992) 49. WEST VIRGINIA - Yes. Section 42-1-6 of Michie's West Virginia Code. (1989) 50. WISCONSIN - Yes. Section 767.60 of Wisconsin Statutes (1992) 51. WYOMING - Yes, if in addition to the marriage, the father is obligated to support the child under a written voluntary promise or by court. Section 14-2-102 and 14-2-101 Wyoming Statutes. (1993) TERRITORIES 1. GUAM - Yes. Title II, Chapter 1, Section 215. Guam Civil Code. (1970) 2. PUERTO RICO - Yes. Title 31, Section 442, Puerto Rico Civil Code. (1988) 3. VIRGIN ISLANDS - Yes. Title 16, Section 461 of Virgin Islands Code Annotated. (1993) 7 FAM 1130 Page 90 of 101 II. IS ISSUE OF A VOID MARRIAGE LEGITIMATE? ALABAMA - Yes. Section 26-17-3 & 5 of Alabama Code. (1993) ALASKA - Yes. Section 25.05.050 and 25.05.051 Alaska Statutes. (1992) ARIZONA - Yes. Section 8-601 of Arizona Revised Statutes. (1992) ARKANSAS - Yes. Section 28-9-209 of Arkansas Statutes (1992) CALIFORNIA - Yes. Section 7001 and 7004 of California Civil Code. (1992) COLORADO - Yes. Section 19-4-103 and 19-4-105 of Colorado Revised Statutes. (1992) CONNECTICUT - Yes. Section 46b-60 of Connecticut Statutes. (1993) DELAWARE - Yes. Title 13, Section 105of Delaware Code. (1992) DISTRICT OF COLOMBIA - Yes. A child born in or out of wedlock is the legitimate child of mother and father and is legitimate relative of their relatives by blood or adoption. 16-908 of the D.C. Code. (1993) FLORIDA - Yes. Section 732.108(2)(a) of Florida Statutes. (1992) GEORGIA - Yes. Section 19-5-15 of the Code of Georgia. (1993) HAWAII – Yes. Section 580-27 of Hawaii Revised Statutes. (1991) IDAHO - Yes, if marriage is void for any reason other than for fraud whereby the wife is pregnant with the child of a man other than her husband. Section 32-503 of Idaho Code. (1992) ILLINOIS - Yes. Chapter 40, Section 303of Illinois Revised Statutes. (1992) INDIANA - Yes, Sections 31-7-8-5 of Indiana Statutes. (1992) IOWA - Yes. Section 598.31 of Code of Iowa. (1993) KANSAS - Yes. Section 38-1113 and 38-1114 of Kansas Statutes Annotated. (1990) KENTUCKY - Yes. Section 391.100 of Kentucky Revised Statutes. 7 FAM 1130 Page 91 of 101

Additional resources provided by the author

Rate this guide


Can’t find what you’re looking for?


Post a free question on our public forum.

Ask a Question

- or -

Search for lawyers by reviews and ratings.

Find a Lawyer