The victim filed the charges and can drop the charges
The government is who files charges, usually by a prosecutor's office on behalf of the city, state, or federal government. An alleged victim of a crime is a witness. Sometimes they have more rights than a regular witness, but for the most part it is the government's case and the alleged victim is just their primary witness and has no authority to dismiss or reduce the charges.
The case must be dismissed because I wasn't read my rights
Miranda rights (right to remain silent, right to counsel, etc) is a Supreme Court imposed requirement that police must explain to criminal suspects their basic constitutional rights applicable to being investigated for a crime when they are in custody and being questioned about a possible criminal offense; they don't have to read you your rights if you are not in custody or they are not questioning you about the alleged crime, but you still have those rights. All a failure of the police to properly read you your Miranda rights, or to respect those rights once you exercised them, does is renders the statements you made in response to questioning inadmissible at trial; it doesn't dismiss the case, or prevent the prosecutor or the judge considering those statements for pretrial issues. Anything you say without the prompting of questioning is also admissible at trial regardless of whether any Miranda violations exist.
People get off on technicalities all the time
A "technicality" is usually a violation of a defendant's constitutional rights so serious that it requires evidence obtained as a result of the violation be ruled inadmissible at trial, sometimes forcing the prosecution to dismiss if they don't have enough other evidence to proceed. Law enforcement is trained on how to avoid the constitutional violations that result in the evidence being thrown out (although usually they are taught tricks to get around what has already been ruled a violation), so the vast majority of cases do not have serious enough constitutional violations to eventually result in a dismissal.
I have a good excuse, so I'll be found not guilty
There are two primary phases of a criminal case that you need to understand: the guilty/not guilty phase and the sentencing phase. The guilty/not guilty phase is usually black and white in the sense that if you did what the law prohibits, you are guilty. An exception is a legal justification, such as self-defense for example, but they are very few. Excuses and reasons may be important at sentencing and could be the difference between imprisonment and a slap on the wrist. Some offenses have legal minimum sentences that a court cannot waive, however, so even the best excuse in the world could mean a stiff sentence.
I can't be convicted based only on someone's word without any evidence
Someone's word is evidence, in the form of witness testimony at trial. Most cases are based solely on witness testimony, and people are convicted all the time based solely on one person's testimony.
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