Generally, all cases are appealed to the Appellate Court of Illinois, which is divided into five districts. The Supreme Court of Illinois has original jurisdiction in very limited situations such as when a circuit court holds a federal or state statute unconstitutional or when a circuit court makes a finding that a defendant is "mentally retarded" after a hearing conducted pursuant to section 114--15(f) of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
Motion for a New Trial
To preserve errors for appellate review, excluding sentencing errors, a motion for a new trial must be filed with the circuit court that raises all issues of error. Each error must be raised with specificity, otherwise, errors not raised in a motion for a new trial will be deemed forfeited by the appellate court. The motion for a new trial must be filed within 30 days of the finding of guilty.
Note: To properly preserve an issue for appeal a contemporaneous objection must be made at trial and the issue must then be raised with specificity in the motion for new trial.
Motion to Reconsider Sentence
To challenge the sentence imposed or to challenge the sentencing hearing a motion to reconsider sentence must be filed within 30 days of the imposition of sentence. Similar to the motion for a new trial, any issue regarding the sentence or the sentencing hearing not raised in the motion to reconsider sentence is forfeited for appellate review.
Perfection of Appeal
An appeal is perfected by the filing of a notice of appeal with the clerk of the circuit court. The notice must be signed by either the appellant or his attorney. The defendant may also request in open court when advised of a right to appeal or subsequently in writing, that the clerk of the circuit court prepare, sign, and file the notice of appeal on behalf of the defendant. In all cases, the notice of appeal must be filed within 30 days of the final order or judgment being appealed or 30 days after the post-trial motions are denied. If a notice of appeal is untimely, the defendant forfeits his right to appeal.
Within 14 days after filing the notice of appeal and giving notice to the appellee's attorney, the appellant must file with the clerk of the appellate court a docketing statement, together with proof of service and the required filing fee of $25. The filing of a docketing statement is not a jurisdiction step in perfecting an appeal. Indeed, the filing of a notice of appeal is the only step required for the appellate court to gain jurisdiction.
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