Yes ... it could.
Meet with an immigration attorney before filing any adjustment papers.
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It could have an effect. Consult with an attorney
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A crime in another country could have an impact so your case would not be straight forward. A discussion with a lawyer would serve you well.
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I agree with my colleagues that it would be best to consult with an immigration attorney. I would suggest before you meet with an attorney that you collect any police and/or court records related to this incident. Avvo reports your location is in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Our firm has an office in Colorado Springs, and we have handled similar cases.
As the other responders mentioned, crimes committed in another country can certainly impact your ability to do Adjustment of Status here - i.e., they can make you "inadmissible."
However, if there was no accusation that you were selling (so that the US government would have no "reason to believe" you were trafficking a controlled substance), and if you never admitted possession of cannabis in any court or official proceeding, you might still be able to adjust.
That said, this is a case where it is worth consulting a lawyer to discuss your case in much more detail, to determine whether you would placing yourself at risk by applying to adjust status.
Our immigration law office is located in Colorado Springs. Feel free to call us at 719-260-7900 and speak with one of our staff members to schedule a consultation.
This answer constitutes general advice and does not constitute specific legal advice, nor create an attorney/client relationship.
Consult with AILA removal specialist prior to applying. Finding of inadmissibility does not require actual conviction. It is a stretch for USCIS to deny your application based on your limited facts but thorough analysis is definitely needed.