Felonies are classified by letters from A through D. Murder is a separate class of felony. The "F" in a Cause Number simply stands for felony. If the State is seeking the Death Penalty or Life Without Parole in a Murder charge, as opposed to a term of years, that will be set out in a separate page of the Charging Information. The $250,000 bond is most likely the required surety bond if posted by a bail bondsman.
Murder, as stated in Indiana law, is listed as "a felony". Normally there are 4 classes of felonies, A,B, C and D, with A being the most serious of that group. Murder, as "a felony", carries a higher possible sentence upon a conviction than a class A felony, at up to 65 years potentially for each count. A C felony sentence range on a conviction is 2 years to 8 years. Those numbers do not include good time credit, which in Indiana is up to 1/2 of the executed portion of a sentence. I am not sure how random it would be. He is entitled to see all of the evidence against him, and he should obviously remain silent until he speaks with a lawyer.
You should also know that if you go to see him in jail, or speak with him on the phone, that interactions with inmates are routinely recorded and monitored. So even though you may be very curious, neither you or him should discuss anything about the charges.
Murder is not ordinarily a bailable offense in Indiana. But there are exceptions, and his attorney should be able to see if he can request bail reduction at some point.
I hope that answers your questions posted.