Your husband needs to file charges that his identify was stolen with both local officials and federal officials. That way, if people are using his social security number for employment (which is common) or to get credit (which is also common), he will not be held liable. My colleague is correct that he will not be liable for any income, payments, etc. that was obtained by others without his knowledge or permission while he is incarcerated. He should still file his tax returns even though he does not have any income, with a page explaining to the IRS that his social security number was compromised, just to be safe.
He will have income that isn't his if people are using his SSN to work illegally. Otherwise, I don't see how it will have a huge effect on his taxes.
He should contact the IRS at the Identity Protection Specialized Unit. Their toll-free number is 1-800-908-4490.
This response should not be considered legal advice. No attorney-client relationship is formed by this response, which reflects only the opinion of the author. The response should not be relied upon as legal advice. The response given is based upon the limited facts provided by the person asking the question and could change if additional facts were made available.