If police have not yet taken a report, he needs to call them - in the town in which it occurred. They will take photos and a report, and go to the scene to assess and photograph the damages. They will probably need a copy of his medical records, too.
The court does not "validate" anything. The police make a report and the prosecutors' office accepts or declines the charges.
Hospital staff has probably already alerted the police, but if the police have not contacted him for a statement he definitely needs to call them to report this offense. With injuries this serious, his co-worker could be facing a felony.
As for the length of the criminal process, it can take several months and often well over a year for a criminal case to be concluded.
On a final note, obviously he also needs to inform his employer.
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Your husband definitely needs to speak with the authorities. If cops called you, then he has. If you were calld/notified by someone else, perhaps you can call cops. If you were called by medical care, ask themm forst if they called cops.
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