The only short answer to this question is to refer you to OCGA 15- 11-28 and say you should speak to an attorney about the facts of the case to get specific advice. There are somewhat complicated procedures for determining whether a person aged 13-17 is tried in juvenile courts or in superior courts. The juvenile court is where most charges will start, although the juvenile court can transfer cases up to superior court if they would be punishable by loss of life, imprisonment for life without possibility of parole, or confinement for life in a penal institution if committed by an adult. The crimes that will generally start out in the superior court are the so called "seven deadly sins", which are Murder;Voluntary manslaughter; Rape; Aggravated sodomy; Aggravated child molestation; Aggravated sexual battery; and Armed robbery if committed with a firearm. However, even in with these charges it is possible for the superior court to transfer the case down to the juvenile court if they would not be punishable by loss of life, imprisonment for life without possibility of parole, or confinement for life in a penal institution if committed by an adult.
Bottom line, if you know someone aged 13-17 who may have to deal with these sorts of charges, you would be very well served to speak to an attorney early in the process. It is possible to talk to the prosecuting agency and in some cases potentially alter how the case would be charged so as to avoid the risk associated with having a child charged in superior court "as an adult".