The statute of limitations is an affirmative defense and it is difficult to answer here. The Statute of Limitations ( SOL) that is applicable tone cause of action such as negligence is different than that applicable to breach of contract . Various circumstances toll the (SOL's) that is it stops the clock from running. I suggest that you see an attorney that specializes in personal injury case ASAP.
You might seek out a lawyer that specializes in claims agains foster care homes/nursing homes. As to the statute of limitations, generally it is 3 years but there are many factors that can extend that. Your children will have until their 18th birthday plus the statute of limitations to bring their own claim.
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