There are two ways for you to pursue this. You may go to the Philippines to marry and sponsor her as a spouse or you can bring her here on a fiancé visa. I prefer the marriage route from the Philippines - It is faster and the costs are less.
You are going to need a co sponsor or joint sponsor unless you have enough assets to make up for the unemployment.
How much it will cost you varies by from attorney to attorney. You will need to call around.
You are not going to get a step-by-step information on this sight. You will need to do your own research. You can start at USCIS.gov or consult with an experienced attorney.
There is no fastest way. Which route is taken depends on where the marriage will take place.
You should retain an experienced immigration lawyer to review all the facts, advise you, and handle the case. You can find one through http://www.ailalawyer.com.
J Charles Ferrari Eng & Nishimura 213.622.2255 The statement above is general in nature and does not constitute legal advice, as not all the facts are known. You should retain an attorney to review all the facts specific to your case in order to receive advise specific to your case. The statement above does not create an attorney/client relationship. Answers on Avvo can only be general ones, as specific answers would require knowledge of all the facts. As such, they may or may not apply to the question.
If you want to bring her to the US on a fiancee visa, you must be able to prove that you have met in person within the past two years, among several other things.
Fiance visas are not simple. You must have met within the past two years. If you are unemployed, you might have trouble with the affidavit of support. The fiance visa process requires several steps including the I-129F petition, consular processing of the fiance visa application, moving to the US, getting married, filing for adjustment of status.
Each step can take several months, and if you do anything wrong or leave out necessary documents, forms or evidence, it will add several months of delays. You're looking at over $2k in processing fees and another $3k to $5k in attorney fees. If you can afford to hire an attorney, you should. Your fiance will get to the US much quicker if you have an experienced immigration attorney helping with each step of the process. Good luck.