You need a law school professor not an immigration attorney.
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As Mr. Segal pointed out .. this is a Law School Professor type of question .... the subject of which would involve hundreds of pages and hours of in-class discussion.
Not so surprisingly Wikipedia has a fairly good overview: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
If I was to boil it down to it's essence, I'd say that it corrected the Dred Scott case's determination that a man is property and that all people born in the us (and subject to the jurisdiction thereof) are US Citizens by right of Jus Soli (law of the land) in addition to the original Jus Sanguines (law of blood) basis for US Citizenship.
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