My colleague is correct that the USCIS number (also sometimes called the A number) is your alien registration number. Effectively, it is your case file number with the U.S. Immigration Service. If you are asked for your alien number or A number (such as on a renewal application if you have to file for renewal in the future), that is the number you would need to provide. Unlike the application receipt number you may used to check case status online, your alien registration number usually stays the same no matter what sort of application you file, while receipt numbers change with almost every different and new application.
Your alien number is NOT the same as a social security or tax ID number, so please do not try to use it for that purpose. However, if needed, you can use your employment authorization document to apply for a separate social security card and number with your local Social Security office.
Ms. Doerrie's answer to your question is general in nature, as not all facts and circumstances relating to the specific person(s) and situations involved are known to her. Ms. Doerrie recommends consulting with an immigration attorney regarding your specific facts and circumstances prior to making any legal decision or submitting any form or application. This response does not constitute legal advice or create an attorney/client relationship.
An EAC number is a code issued by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) on a specialized form used for some type of applications such as foreign workers, Form I-129S and others.
Usually, the issued EAC number indicates that the form is processed by the USCIS Vermont Service Center as a designated for certain type of applications.
One may further see the updates or processing time with that submission on the USCIS site below: http://www.immihelp.com/processing-times/uscis-case-status-check.jsp
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The 9-digit number if your personal "alien registration number". In the immigration world, it is often referred to as your "A number". This is number is personal to you and can not be found online. I would not share this number with others and I would keep it handy as you will likely need it for almost anything you apply for with immigration in the future. An "A number" is different than a "Receipt" number--any time that you apply for any benefit with immigration, you will recieve what is called a "I-797 Receipt Notice" form which will contain a receipt number which you may use to look up your case status for that particular application. However, a receipt number will change with each application, while your A number will remain the same permanently. Hope that helps!
FOR CONSULTATION on IMMIGRATION or FAMILY LAW MATTERS Contact: Law Offices of Jennifer L. Bennett, 312.972.7969, firstname.lastname@example.org, 3806 W. Irving Park Road, Suite B, Chicago, IL 60618. The statement above is general in nature and does not constitute legal advice, as not all the facts are known. You should retain an attorney to review all the facts specific to your case in order to receive advice specific to your situation and/or case. The statement above does not create an attorney/client relationship. Answers on Avvo are only general in nature; specific answers require knowledge of all facts.