Generally you must cooperate with TSA agents. Courts have routinely held that things like age or other biographical data are non-testimonial and therefore do not involve a person's right to remain silent under most circumstances. Unfortunately many people have had negative experiences with TSA agents but that has not resulted in any major change in their conduct yet. Because a person does not have to go on a plane and can choose to travel some other way. Generally a person has fewer rights while traveling than while going about their business in public.
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Constitutional and Civil rights are essentially the same thing. You have the same as we all have....you can clearly see them being applied equally, can't you? The bottom line is that the law is full of words like "reasonable" which are subjective. Any applied objective meaning comes from findings made in specific fact scenarios which, in the aggregate, are what is called case law. The case law says that even civil rights are subject to some level of reasonable regulation. What is reasonable, and what is regulation, are often up for argument.
Don't confuse your rights! Your right (noun) to have to provide only what is lawfully required and your actually being right (adjective) does not mean that you won't be harassed in some way. You are dealing with relatively new but sprawling governmental agencies who employ common denominator workers whom are expected to live and work by the codes and ethics the agency heads request. It doesn't always work smoothly. New case law is always being created on subjects such as this. You may be technically correct - they should have to do the math. But, they will be practically correct when they claim they asked you for the age value in order to see whether or not you did the math, which they do as a security measure (it is common for people with fake ID's to not have an off-the-cuff response to such a question).
Instead of feeling persecuted, feel flattered that your young wife instills such obvious envy in the eyes of the screeners and state your age with pride. Being party to a case over such a small point is not for everybody, so challenge these sorts of details with caution. However, if you feel passionately about it and are willing to endure the sacrifice of a long expensive litigation against the government in a federal court, then go for it! Good luck.
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TSA agents are generally given more leeway in dealing with airline passengers than police are with citizens in an everyday encounter.
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TSA then could remove you from your flight.
You decide, on balance, whether you'd rather stand on your rights or travel.
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