In teh State of Minnesota there is no particular age when a child may determine which parent they live with. Generally speaking, the older and more mature the child is, the greater weight to Court may give to the child's opinion. However, great care must be taken such that the parent is not viewed as having directly influenced the child's opinion in one way or another.
From the content of your post, it sounds as though your husband will need to file a motion to modify the parenting schedule (if not also to modify physical custody). Your best bet to get a better idea of what process you may be looking at (as well as timing and possible costs) is to get a copy of the court order that is currently in effect as to custody and parenting time and bring it in to have an in-person consultation with an attorney. Most attorneys (myself included) offer an free initial consultation.
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Under Minnesota law, a child never gets to determine where they will reside. After custody has been determined, any change in custody would require a showing that the child is endangered physically, emotionally or developmentally in the current custodial situation and that the benefit of the change in custody outweighs any harm. Children in their late teens may deemed endangered if they have strong feelings about living with one parent or another. The desires of younger children does not have such an impact.
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There is no age where a child can choose a parent to live with. It doesn't work that way in MN - the judge could, if they wish to, take the child's wishes into consideration, but most won't. Bottom line - the child goes where the court orders.
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