This Court can permit service on defendants located outside of the district in manners other than service of a summons and complaint. Under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 4(e), an individual can be served by following Massachusetts state law. Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 223A, Section 6(a)(5), permits service on individuals outside of the commonwealth “as directed by the court” so long as the method is “reasonably calculated to give actual notice” to the defendants. This allows the federal court to enter an order for alternative service of process so long as you can show the Court that the method will likely give the defendant "actual notice." This means, for example, that if you have a defendant's E-mail address, you could ask for permission to serve him or her by E-mail. If you have their home address, you can ask to serve him or her by first class and certified mail. You can also ask the Court to allow service by publishing an advertisement in the defendant's local newspaper. You could, in extreme circumstances, seek to serve them with a copy of the summons and complaint over social media such as Facebook and Twitter. In my experience, the best way to get permission for alternative service is to use two or three different methods (such as E-mail, certified mail, and publication) to ensure that the defendant receives actual notice of the complaint.
This response should not be construed to constitute legal advice or create an attorney-client relationship. Always seek the advice of an attorney if you have any questions about the law or procedure of your jurisdiction.
You may be able to file a motion with the court for alternate service. You should speak to the clerk at the court to see if the judge will entertain the motion.
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