After you marry, you file the petition for her. It's not possible to give an exact amount of time she would need to wait, but it would be approximately 2.5 years from the date that USCIS receives your properly filed petition, until your wife would be eligible to apply for an immigrant visa. From the time that your wife applies, it would be approximately 3 to 6 months more time until she would be scheduled for a visa interview.
If you have been a permanent resident for 5 years or more, you might be eligible to apply for US Citizenship, depending on whether you meet other requirements. If you were a US Citizen, your wife's processing would be quicker (no need to wait that 2.5 years described above).
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A few years, it is much faster if you are a citizen.
Legal disclaimer: The statement above is general in nature, as not all the facts are known. You should retain an attorney to review all the facts specific to your case in order to receive advise specific to your case. The statement above does not create an attorney/client relationship.
I want to add that there is no way to know if will really be 2 1/2 years. While that is an estimate based on the current visa bulletin, the processing time can always change-for better or worse. If you qualify for citizenship, you could become a U.S. citizen to reduce the time she must wait.