First, I am concerned about your choice to file a new application rather than appeal. You have 60 days after the Judge's decision to request review. If you believe you have been disabled all along and if the necessary evidence was filed, an appeal may be the more appropriate option for you. An appeal protects your current alleged onset date and lets you continue to pursue retroactive benefits.
However, if you have missed the appeal period or believe the earlier claim had weaknesses, a new application is appropriate. Since Social Security is now electronic, the prior file will remain available for review. The older evidence will not carry much weight though, because the new claim must show deterioration from the prior hearing decision. You should focus on updating your record and submitting the strongest new evidence possible.
I agree that you really need to consider whether you should be appealing the denial from the ALJ. Keep in mind also that you will most likely get the same ALJ if your new claim proceeds to another hearing. That makes it doubly tough to win these kinds of claims. What is most impressive to an ALJ in this situation is if there is something new about your condition that wasn't apparent or wasn't known at the time of the first hearing. For example, having new or better testing for a condition can be persuasive (e.g. now had an MRI done on back which reveals problems that weren't showing up on xrays, etc). I would highly recommend consulting with an experienced Social Security disability attorney if at all possible for this new claim.
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I suggest strongly that you contact an attorney who handles Social Security Disability cases. I agree with the other answers here that an appeal may be your better chance. The attorney could review everything and potentially supplement your application to include what needs to be there. Attorney Margolius gave you an excellent and thorough answer. I suggest you give her a call and set up a consultation.
Attorney Chris Beck
Beck Law Office, L.L.C.
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a new claim is just that - brand new. so the old evidence will have to be re-submitted on the new claim.
while an appeal of the ALJ decision may be the better bet (as suggested by the other comments), it also may not be better. statistically speaking, after an ALJ decision, success on appeal is about 5-10%. if the evidence is overwhelming, I might still appeal. but if it was close and you lost, the a new application is the way to go in my opinion.