Once you file bankruptcy, the school cannot refuse to forward your transcripts. And if you owe the school directly, it is not a student loan, but a debt that can be discharged. Talk to a bankruptcy attorney, as these problems may be easily resolved. Fees are very local, so you will need to discuss those as well.
A loan owed directly to a school (college, or even a private middle school) can be defined as a non-dischargeable educational loan. However, there is a difference between a student loan and, as someone else mentioned, a debt to the school (fees, etc). The first step is fining out exactly what is holding up the transcript. If it is a relatively small amount, it is likely not worth filing bankruptcy over. Although your current situation is not good, the test used by Courts in your state (the 11th Circuit) is essentially a "certainty of hopelessness" for the present AND future. From your post, your future may be looking up.