You will be responsible towards the U.S. Government from an income tax perspective. The country you are located most likely has a treaty against double taxation hence, if you pay income taxes overseas, you should be able to apply for a tax credit in the U.S..
As per the second part of your question, you should specify which type of taxes you are talking about. Basically, you should not be accountable for indirect tax towards the U.S. revenue. These you describe seem to be consumption taxes charged and paid to the National Revenue where the consumption takes place.
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My comment assumes that you are already a US citizen and only addresses US federal income tax issues. Your questions about voting or serving on a jury relate to state law and not within the scope of my comment. US citizens are taxed on their worldwide income, so as long as you are a US citizen you pay taxes on income you earn anywhere in the world - even if you move to a foreign country and never come back. US expatriates (i.e., US citizens that live outside of the US) are still required to comply with their US federal income tax obligations - like filing tax returns and complying with certain financial disclosure requirements (like the Foreign Bank Accounts Reporting act, of FBAR).
By "pay taxes for the houses and cars that I use," I assume that you refer to value added tax (VAT). A VAT is roughly similar to a sales tax, but the US is one of a handful of countries that does not currently have a VAT system, so you would not be charged US VAT on any personal assets that you purchase abroad. Please consult a tax advisor on whom you can rely.
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As a US citizen you have to report your worldwide income. In other words, you have a reporting obligation with the IRS. You may benefit of some tax breaks if you pay taxes in any foreign countries but you need to report all your income. They may contact you if, for example, the US local embassy has record of your presence/residence within its jurisdiction. If you work overseas for a foreign company you are most probably paying local taxes (also on local cars and houses). I would suggest to hire an international attorney. Best.
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