You potentially could have a stronger position if he were to use your logo. As it is, did you have a meeting of the minds that he was going to pay you for the work. If you did, even orally, then you could have an actionable oral contract. You would have to value that and potentially seek action in small claims.
If you didnt have a meeting of the minds or never sorted out the details, then it is more difficult.
You mentioned that this was for a friend. You should assess if the friendship is worth letting this slide or, if the person is worth remaining friends with. That is a value judgment from you that could go either way.
As far as legal action, you could try something but it will likely be an uphill climb.
With all due respect, a viable answer would require more information. For example, was there any agreement before you commenced work? If so, what was the scope and intent of that agreement? Was anything in writing? In addition, all attorneys need to perform a conflict's check before they provide legal advice, so they know they not in conflict with a current client.
Was there a contract between you and your friend? If so, was it put in writing or was it something that was just talked about. This will be a big issue in determining if you have a case.
The above is general legal and business analysis. It is not "legal advice" but analysis, and different lawyers may analyze this matter differently, especially if there are additional facts not reflected in the question. I am not your attorney until retained by a written retainer agreement signed by both of us. See also avvo.com terms and conditions item 9, incorporated as if it was reprinted here