If the sentences were made concurrent, then he will get credit for all of the time he serves on his state sentence toward his federal sentence from the date of his federal sentencing. In addition, he is entitled to roughly 50 days a year credit against his federal sentence. Over 30 years, that amounts to about 4 years off. So he has about 24.5 years to do.
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The prior answer is correct. But keep in mind it is the actual time served in state custody and not the time sentenced that will apply to the federal term - assuming that the federal court made the state time concurrent by discounting the state time from the federal term.
Mr. Richman is correct. Depending upon the crime for which he was federally sentenced there may be federal programs such as the DRAP program that could shorten the federal sentence.
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Time credit calculation questions tend to be very fact-specific. As a general matter, federal inmates serve 87.1 percent of the sentence imposed (sentence length less statutorily available Good Time credit), and, of that time, up the final year can be served on pre-release placement (halfway house and/or home confinement). As to the issue of one sentence running concurrent to another, former Bureau of Prisons' Northeast Regional Counsel Henry Sadowski has written various things trying to help clarify the issues (as the BOP tends to see them). See, for example, https://www.fpd-ohn.org/sites/default/files/files/FedSent_Basics_APR11.pdf. Finally, to the extent that the BOP has received the necessary paperwork from the federal courts, an inmate not yet in BOP custody (e.g., someone serving another sentence against which the federal sentence his running concurrent) should still show up in the BOP's Inmate Locator (https://www.bop.gov/inmateloc/), which lists a "Projected Release Date," the day that the BOP calculates the federal sentence will expire.
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