The elements for informal marriage (common law) are that you two resided together, portrayed that you two were married, and had an agreement to be married.
Typically the evidence you use tax records, insurance documents, etc, where you two claimed to be married.
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For the elements to be met the couple must:
Cohabitate (live together),
Hold out as man & wife (call each other wife, husband to third parties), AND INTEND to be married.
Please consult a Family attorney in your area. Many, like myself, give a free initial consult and can give you clearer guidance based on all the specific facts of your case. Even if you did not have an informal marriage, you may pursue relief through civil courts, and/or court ordered mediation.
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You need to meet with a Houston attorney in person & discuss your case. Quite frankly, the other 2 attorneys outlined "common law" marriage for Texas. However, I cannot tell if you have a TX common law marriage. Therefore, I can't tell your next course of action.
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Your own statement indicates there is no common law marriage. Although you lived together, you did not consider yourself married. Even if you were to consider yourself married, your ex will stress she did not so consider herself married. The third element, whether you held yourself out as married, is not indicated on the items you accumulated together. It also sounds that if you were to go into a Justice of the Peace (J.P.) Court there is nothing you can claim as solely belonging to you. Review your charge cards and chec book and see if you have any evidence of what may be owed back to you. If you choose to live with someone again, you may way to enter into a contractual agreement and take those items ;you solely pay for in your own name. You can represent yourself in Justice of the Peace court.