You can fix the 2012 tax return by filing an amended return, form 1040-X and submitting it as soon as possible. If you can submit before April 15th, that would be best.
Marty Davidoff, firstname.lastname@example.org, 732-274-1600. This answer is provided for general information only. You should seek advice from an attorney or tax professional.
Mr. Davidoff has given you an excellent answer. You should file an amended federal return and you can request a copy of your California return from the FTB. If in Google you type in California Franchise Tax Board filing individual returns you will find that the web site has a live chat feature that may prove helpful.
I agree that you should file an amended return.
As for your visa, I tell clients to answer honestly when they are asked about any tax problems and to provide documentation that you are working on or have resolved any tax issues. Proof of payment of the previous years tax liability and a copy of the amended return will probably suffice.
I also recommend you find a new tax preparer. Ask for recommendations from family and friends.
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