May I, a PhD student, scan a book chapter for a non-academic friend?
4 attorney answers
What you describe is not fair use. It falls under the category of "copyright infringement." And that has teeth.
The carve-out for academic copying is for literally that ... ACADEMIC use. It is not for academicians to have free rein to copy for their non-academic friends. If your friend were an academic person, then the question might be a bit murkier, but an academic doing an end-run for a non-academic? No.
If your friend is interested in the article, s/he can go to the library and read the article in the journal in which the article was published.
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I see nothing "fair" about a use like that. Your impulse to be generous clashes with copyright law.
Your chances of getting caught aren't non-existent, but they're microscopic, so it's up to you and you conscience.
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Generally, fair use is based on a number of factors, which need to be looked at on a case by case basis.
You should discuss with an intellectual property attorney in a private consultation.
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