Fair Use exceptions to US copyright law include certain limited exceptions for "nonprofit educational use," typically understood to include copying a single book chapter for activities such as classroom teaching and research. Would this exception cover the copying of a chapter by me, who has institutional access to a research library, for a friend, who has a non-academic job but is still interested in learning about the subject?
What you describe is not fair use. It falls under the category of "copyright infringement." And that has teeth.
The carve-out for academic copying is for literally that ... ACADEMIC use. It is not for academicians to have free rein to copy for their non-academic friends. If your friend were an academic person, then the question might be a bit murkier, but an academic doing an end-run for a non-academic? No.
If your friend is interested in the article, s/he can go to the library and read the article in the journal in which the article was published.
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I see nothing "fair" about a use like that. Your impulse to be generous clashes with copyright law.
Your chances of getting caught aren't non-existent, but they're microscopic, so it's up to you and you conscience.
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Generally, fair use is based on a number of factors, which need to be looked at on a case by case basis.
You should discuss with an intellectual property attorney in a private consultation.
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