Parental kidnapping or parental abduction is defined as the concealment, taking, or retention of a child by his or her parent in violation of the rights of the child's other parent or another family member. Violated rights may include, for example, custody and visitation rights. According to the law the only victim is the left behind parent, because this does not have anything to do with children rights or welfare, only parental rights.
A parent that has legal physical custody of the child in the country where the child is physical located, could be wanted for parental abduction in a different country. When there is a conflict of law between two country's you must follow the law if the country in which the child is physical located. Both parents believed they had the sole right to keep the children in their native country, thereby denying them meaningful access to the other parent.
According to each of their country's laws, they were both right. It may have been inconvenient or uncomfortable for the mother to live in the United States after she split from her children’s father. It may have been equally undesirable for father to live in Russia.
Custodial interference in the second degree.
"(1) A relative of a person is guilty of custodial interference in the second degree if, with the intent to deny access to such person by a parent, guardian, institution, agency, or other person having a lawful right to physical custody of such person, the relative takes, entices, retains, detains, or conceals the person from a parent, guardian, institution, agency, or other person having a lawful right to physical custody of such person. This subsection shall not apply to a parent's noncompliance with a court order making residential provisions for the child.
(2) A parent of a child is guilty of custodial interference in the second degree if: (a) The parent takes, entices, retains, detains, or conceals the child, with the intent to deny access, from the other parent having the lawful right to time with the child pursuant to a court order making residential provisions for the child; or (b) the parent has not complied with the residential provisions of a court-ordered parenting plan after a finding of contempt under RCW 26.09.160(3); or (c) if the court finds that the parent has engaged in a pattern of willful violations of a court order making residential provisions for the child.
(3) Nothing in subsection (2)(b) of this section prohibits conviction of custodial interference in the second degree under subsection (2)(a) or (c) of this section in absence of findings of contempt.
(4)(a) The first conviction of custodial interference in the second degree is a gross misdemeanor.
(b) The second or subsequent conviction of custodial interference in the second degree is a class C felony."
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