It sounds like you would benefit from an in person consultation with an attorney.
NY Criminal defense Attorney
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These questions should be fully answered by an attorney who has knowledge of the particulars of your situation. If you were wrongfully charged and the charge dismissed, then the statute of limitations should not matter, and you may apply for clearance of the record.
As for your second question, generally, a dismissed charge may be re-charged, depending upon the circumstances for the original dismissal, during the applicable period for the limitations. The intervention of the superior court is not needed. Once the statute of limitations has run and any applicable savings clauses then the government has lost the ability to charge the offense.