it is unlawful for an employer to terminate an employee BECAUSE that employee has reported unlawful discrimination or harassment, or BECAUSE the employee stated an intent to report the unlawful discrimination or harassment to a government entity responsible for administration of the protective statutes. If you can prove that (1) you either suffered or reasonably believed you were suffering from unlawful discrimination(not all discrimination is unlawful), (2) that you complained about that unlawful discrimination or your threatened to so complain, and (3) you were fired as a result of your complaint(s), then you would have a claim.
It does not matter if the complaint was found to be in your favor or the employer's favor so long as you made the complaint with a good faith belief that it was true.
Your posted question suggests that you think that since you made the complaint you could not be written up or fired. Not true. The reporting does not insulate you from discipline or termination. If the employer has a legitimate reason for your termination unrelated to the claimed retaliation, and you cannot prove that legitimate reason is not a pretext for unlawful retaliation, you cannot receive damages for the alleged wrongful conduct.
As noted, not all discrimination is actionable. In fact, most forms of discrimination are perfectly legal. Your best move right now is to locate and consult with an experienced employment law attorney to explore your facts and determine your options. I would suggest you look either on this site in the Find a Lawyer section, or go to www.cela.org, the home page for the California Employment Lawyers Association, an organization whose members are dedicated to the representation of employees against their employers.
Good luck to you.
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It is common for employees to believe that they can make themselves "bullet-proof" with a "pre-emptive" complaint that leaves the employer with no good legal options. But that strategy is rarely successful.
You need a good attorney. Your former employer will have a good attorney. The evidence will show what it shows and the legal chips will fall where they fall. At this point, courts have been hearing cases of unlawful discrimination for approx 50 years. There is now a vast body of law that prescribes in detail the analytic process for evaluating claims and evidence re unlawful discrimination. The law is fully equipped to sort through the events between you and your former employer and make an appropriate and definitive determination and resolution of who did what, when, and why.
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It is always better to complain about illegal practices (whether it's to your employer or a government agency) in the workplace prior to being written up. The problem here is it looks as if you are complaining about illegal practices to try to save your position. However, if you have been harassed based on race, age, national origin... by managers or supervisors you may have a harassment case even though the wrongful termination case may have some potential problems. If you feel you have been harassed or discriminated against you should file a complaint with the Department of Fair Employment and Housing or the EEOC.