I am not licensed to practice law in Georgia so the following should not be taken as legal advice, but simply as information based on general principles of law which is intended to educate. If you need legal advice, please consult a lawyer who holds Georgia licensure.
Bankruptcy is for people who are unable to meet their obligations as they become due. Bankruptcy enables individuals to get a fresh start by eliminating most of their unsecured debt. You should consult a bankruptcy lawyer in Georgia who will conduct the kind of detailed questioning necessary to provide you with informed legal advice on whether bankruptcy is an appropriate option for you at this time.
I do not believe your back tax obligations or your student loan obligations will be discharged in bankruptcy, but your credit card debt may be dischargeable. Talk about this with your bankruptcy lawyer.
You probably can file (based upon what you posted) and it would stop the garnishment. To be able to answer you for sure, I would need additional information. I'm licensed in Georgia, so please feel free to contact me with details.