A judge might not let you change your name. The main reasons why a judge would not agree to change your name are:
-- If the judge finds that you are changing your name to commit fraud,
-- If the judge finds that you are changing your name to hide from the law or the police or for some other illegal reason.
If you are on probation or parole, the judge may not agree to change your name, unless your probation or parole officer is aware of your change of name and gives written consent. If you are incarcerated, the Director of Corrections has to give permission to the court to let you change your name.
Your record can follow you if you change your name. If it gets changed, it may slip through the cracks here and there, but your fingerprint is your identifying mark.
The main way criminal records are tracked are though fingerprints. Your new name would be linked to your current criminal record as an "a.k.a." or alias.