So, if someone is tailgating me on the highway, and I brake check them, and they say for instance, lose control of their car and crash into the barrier or a tree, could I possibly be held liable? Is it possible for me to be held liable for a single-vehicle crash that wasn't me?
Presuming they found you, yes. Their improper driving does not excuse yours.
You should discuss this with an attorney - not only are you potentially criminally likable - you may also face civil liability as well.
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