You still have a case, although you may not recover much in the way of damages. Hostile work environment discrimination cases are generally first filed with the Illinois Department of Human Rights, although county and local laws may also be violated. If you work for state or local government, you should go to the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
While there is a remote chance that you have a case, the verbal assault one day before you left your old job will probably not result in sufficient relief for you to pursue anything. You have moved on. The fact that your boss yelled at you the day before you left does not really rise to the level of a lawsuit. You would be wasting your time and possibly your money.
What are your damages? Ya gotta have damages.
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